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Chapter 12: Research and Further Reading


  1. Cranberries and lower urinary tract infection prevention.
  2. The Cranberry Institute. “Cranberry and Human Health Research Review”.
  3. Effectiveness of cranberry capsules to prevent urinary tract infections in vulnerable older persons.
  4. The Cranberry Institute
  5. Cranberries for UTI Prevention


  1. Cran-Max, Cranmax, Cranberry, Cranberries – Pills with UTIRose – Extract / Benefits / Side Effects / Dose
  2. Halt the Vicious Cycle of Urinary Tract Infections Novel Next-Generation Antimicrobial Protection.
  3. In vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower extract against human pathogens.
  4. Cranberry and Hibiscus: Berry Effective Against Urinary Tract Infections


  1. Use of D-mannose in prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women.
  2. D-mannose powder for prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections in women: a randomized clinical trial.
  3. Treat and Prevent UTIs Without Drugs
  4. D-Mannose for Bladder and Kidney Infections
  5. Cran-Mannose UTI™
  6. D-Mannose WebMD
  7. D-Mannose – Urinary Tract Health Support

Vitamin C

  1. Management of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Healthy Adult Women.
  2. Daily intake of 100 mg ascorbic acid as urinary tract infection prophylactic agent during pregnancy.
  3. Vitamin C can do battle with bladder infections.
  4. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid). Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research.

Vitamin D

  1. The association between serum levels of vitamin D and recurrent urinary tract infections in premenopausal women.
  2. Urinary Tract Health Gets Boost from Vitamin D
  3. Vitamin D fights urinary tract infections
  4. Vitamin D WebMD
  5. New study finds low vitamin D levels may increase risk of UTI among children


  1. Oral probiotics can resolve urogenital infections
  2. Lactobacilli for prevention of urogenital infections: a review.
  3. Persistence of Lactobacillus fermentum RC-14 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 but not L. rhamnosus GG in the human vagina as demonstrated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA

Glossary of Terms

Antibacterial: Anything that destroys bacteria or suppresses their growth or their ability to reproduce.

Antibiotic Resistance: Antibiotic resistance occurs when an antibiotic has lost its ability to effectively control or kill bacterial growth; in other words, the bacteria are "resistant" and continue to multiply in the presence of therapeutic levels of an antibiotic.

Antimicrobial: An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or inhibits their growth. Antimicrobial medicines can be grouped according to the microorganisms they act primarily against.

Bactericidal: Capable of killing bacteria. Antibiotics, antiseptics, and disinfectants can all be bactericidal.

Bacteriostatic: Capable of inhibiting the growth or reproduction of bacteria. Different from bactericidal (capable of killing bacteria outright).

Botanical: a substance made from part of a plant, as from roots, leaves, bark, or berries.

Urinary tract: The organs of the body that produce, store, and discharge urine. These organs include the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

UTI Reinfection. A reinfection occurs several weeks after antibiotic treatment has cleared up the initial episode and can be caused by the same bacterial strain that caused the original episode or a different one.

UTI Relapse. It is diagnosed when a UTI recurs within 2 weeks of treatment of the first episode and is due to treatment failure.

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